Monday, 2 July 2012

Congenital Disorder of the Spine

A medical condition that is present at or before birth is called Congenital Disorder. These conditions, also referred to as birth defects, can be acquired during the fetal stage of development or from the genetic makeup of the parents. There are numerous variations of congenital malformations of the bone and soft tissue of the head and spine, Congenital anomalies of the spine may be simple and benign, causing no spinal deformity, or they may be complex. 

Congenital Disorder of the Spine

Types of Congenital Malformations of Spine

Spina Bifida
Tethered Cord
Lipoma of the Spinal Cord
Neurenteric Cyst

Spina bifida is the most common of a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects, which affect the central nervous system. There are 3 types of spina bifida.

                                     Spinal Bifida Treatment Chennai

1) Spina bifida occulta

The mildest form of spina bifida, spina bifida occulta describes a group of neural tube birth defects that can affect the spinal column. This is composed of bones, or vertebrae, which support the nerve center of the spinal cord, which is responsible for carrying all nerve signals in between the body and the brain.

A meningocele is a form of spina bifida. It is a congenital malformation that arises from an error in the normal development of the central nervous system, particularly the spinal cord and spine. It is an out-pouching of the coverings of the spinal cord that results in a defect in the bone and soft-tissue coverings of the back part of the spine.

3) Myelomeningocele

A myelomeningocele is a defect of the backbone (spine) and spinal cord. Before birth, the baby's backbone, spinal cord and the structure they float in (spinal canal) do not form or close normally.

Tethered Cord 

Cord is said to be tethered when it is attached abnormally within the boney spine. There are two ways the spinal cord can become tethered.

1) If your child was born with spina bifida then the cord could become tethered because of the scar tissue that resulted from surgically closing the spine at birth. This scar tissue causes the cord to attach abnormally.

2) The spinal cord can also become tethered with spina bifida occulta. This can occur without visible outward signs although usually half the children have visible symptoms.

Tethered Cord

Treatment for Tethered Cord 

Patients suspected of having tethered cord may go through the following steps for evaluation and treatment:
  • Spinal x-rays
  • MRI
  • Somatosensory evoked potentials – to evaluate nerves and electrical impulse transmissions through the spinal cord
  • Bladder function evaluation by a pediatric urologist
  • Tethered cord surgery

Lipoma of the Spinal Cord

A spinal cord lipoma is a fatty mass or tumor within the spinal cord that may or may not be associated with Spina Bifida. It often occurs in a normally positioned cord without any skin or bony abnormalities. The tendency to develop a lipoma is not necessarily hereditary although hereditary conditions, such as familial multiple lipomatosis, may include lipoma development. Cases have been reported where minor injuries are alleged to have triggered the growth of a lipoma, called "post-traumatic lipomas." However, the link between trauma and the development of lipomas is controversial. Risks depend on lipoma size and location. If an important motor nerve runs through the lipoma, then removal may injure this nerve. Intraoperative nerve stimulation helps locate the nerve to ensure its preservation. Biopsies also have the risk of nerve injury.

Treatment for Lipomas

Lipomas are normally removed by simple excision. The removal can often be done under local anaesthetic, and take less than 30 minutes. There are new methods being developed that are supposed to remove the lipomas without scarring. One of them is removal by the use of injection of compounds that trigger lipolysis, such as steroids or phosphatidylcholine.

Neurenteric Cyst

Neurenteric cysts are not confined to the spinal column but may be found within the brain, mediastinum, abdomen, pelvis, or even in a subcutaneous location. Congenital abnormalities believed to be derived from an abnormal connection between the primitive endoderm and ectoderm during the third week of life.


The Treatment of Intraspinal Neurenteric Cysts

The treatment of intraspinal neurenteric cysts is surgical. They are frequently adherent to the spinal cord or cauda equina to the extent that complete excision is not feasible but even so, evacuation and partial resection of these lesions is usually followed by the same good results as complete excision. In either case, neurological function usually improves and recurrence after partial resection may take years to become symptomatic.

Chennai Brain and Spine provides treatments for all types of brain and spine disorders at reasonable cost. 

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Monday, 28 May 2012

Brain Tumor Surgery Procedure

The brain and spinal column combined to called Central Nervous System (CNS). All vital functions, including thought, speech, and body movements are controlled. When a tumor occurs in the CNS, it affects a person's thought processes or movements. A Brain Tumor starts when normal cells in the brain change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass.

Brain Tumor Treatment in Chennai

The growth of a tumor usually take place space within the skull and affects normal brain activity. It can cause damage by increasing pressure in the brain, by pushing the brain against the skull. It cause damage to nerves and healthy brain tissue. Although brain tumors rarely spread to other parts of the body, most of them can spread through the brain tissue.

Symptoms of Brain Tumors

Brain tumor symptoms depend upon the location of a brain tumor. This is because different functions are controlled by different parts of the brain. The following are the common symptoms of brain,
  • Headaches - 1 in 3 people with a brain tumour first go to their doctor with severe headaches
  • Seizures - Fits are one of the most common symptoms of brain tumours. About 1 in 4 people with a brain tumour have fits when they first go to their doctor
  • Trouble speaking or/and change of mood such as depression, or /and change in personality - These problems are happening because brain tumor affected in location where the above functions are controlled.
  • Weakness or paralysis of part of the body
  • Changes in vision, hearing, or other sensations - This is particularly important if your sight seems to be failing and glasses are not helping. Other problems include blurred vision, floating shapes, tunnel vision, or a loss of vision that comes and goes.
Types of Brain Tumor

There are more than 120 types of brain tumors. Today, most medical institutions use the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system to identify brain tumors

Brain tumors can be Benign or Malignant Tumor.

Benign brain tumors do not contain cancer cells. It Can be removed, and they seldom grow back. The border or edge of a benign brain tumor can be clearly seen. Cells from benign tumors do not invade tissues around them or spread to other parts of the body. However, benign tumors can press on sensitive areas of the brain and cause serious health problems. Unlike benign tumors in most other parts of the body, benign brain tumors are sometimes life threatening. Very rarely, a benign brain tumor may become malignant.

Malignant brain tumors contain cancer cells. Malignant brain tumors are generally more serious and often is life threatening. They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd or invade the surrounding healthy brain tissue. Very rarely, cancer cells may break away from a malignant brain tumor and spread to other parts of the brain, to the spinal cord, or even to other parts of the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.

Sometimes, a malignant tumor does not extend into healthy tissue. The tumor may be contained within a layer of tissue. Or the bones of the skull or another structure in the head may confine it. This kind of tumor is called encapsulated.

Treatment for brain tumors depends on a number of factors including the type, location and size of the tumor as well as the patient's age and general health. Treatment methods and schedules differ for children and adults.

1) Brain Surgery

Brain surgery is the usual treatment for most brain tumors. In order to remove a brain tumor, a neurosurgeon carry out craniotomy, this is done by making an opening in the skull. Whenever possible, the surgeon attempts to remove the entire tumor. If the tumor cannot be completely removed without damaging vital brain tissue, your doctor may remove as much of the tumor as possible. Partial removal helps to relieve symptoms by reducing pressure on the brain and reduces the amount of tumor to be treated by radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

2) Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is the use of high-powered rays to remove damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. Radiation therapy also is used when surgery is not possible.

3) Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The doctor may use just one drug or a combination, usually giving the drugs orally or by injection into a blood vessel or muscle. Intrathecal chemotherapy involves injecting the drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid.

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Tuesday, 22 May 2012

Symptoms and Treatment for Blood clots in Brain

A blood clot is formed in the brain, due to bleeding that takes place in the area between the skull and brain. Functioning of the brain is affected due to pressure as a result of blood clot that is exerted on the brain. Causes of blood clots in the brain may be due injury to head or neck. The clot when it moves to another part of the body, blocks blood supply and causes a stroke. Therefore, a clot formed in the neck can move to the brain and cause a stroke. The other cause of blood clotting in the brain is bleeding problems.                                 
                                            Symptoms of blood clot

Blood Clot Symptoms in Brain

Severe Headache

The presents of blood clot make severe headache. Many patients report that this is a new type of headache that they have never experienced.

Loss of Sensation

The presents of blood clot blocks the blood supply to a part of the brain, because of this lose normal sensation in some part of the body, such as the face, arm, or leg.

Difficulty Speaking
Difficulty Speaking occurs when blood clot shuts down blood flow needed by the parietal lobe of the brain, this is the part of the brain that controls speech.

Treatment for Blood Clot in Brain

The blood clot treatment in brain depends on the cause of the blood clot. Sometimes doctors prescribe aspirin in order to dissolve blood clots. In other cases blood clot busters are used to treat the blood clot as well.

Brain surgeries also carried out in order to solve blood clot problems in brain. Cost of this treatment is much affordable in India and Treatment for Blood Clot in Brain can be best done in.

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Wednesday, 9 May 2012

Degenerative Disc Surgery Chennai

Spinal cord discs are the small cushions that fit between each vertebra. Due to aging these discs can "dry out" and begin to crack, resulting in less cushioning between the vertebrae. This is called as degenerative disc disease. Degenerative disc disease leads to pinching of nerves that cause tingling, numbness, pain, or even muscle weakness. 

Degenerative Disc Disease Treatment in Chennai

Degenerative Disc Disease can affect any part of the spine, although common sites are the lumbar and cervical spine. Degenerative disc disease is a common cause of neck and especially low back pain. Disc degeneration is a normal part of aging and usually is not a problem but sometimes it become problematic if it affects disc height such as causing discs to lose height, become thin, and stiffen. Lost disc height narrows spinal nerve root passageways between vertebral bodies and may lead to nerve impingement, lost joint space, inflammation, pain, and micro instability.

Degenerative disc disease causes :

Degenerative disc disease may result from

  • Trauma
  • Infection
  • Natural processes of aging. 

Degenerative disc disease Symptoms :

Degenerative disc disease symptoms may be similar to disc herniation or bulging disc. Cervical degenerative disc disease cause, upper back pain, shoulder and neck pain. Chief complaints associated with lumbar degenerative disc disease include low back, buttock, and/or thigh pain. 

Other symptoms include numbness, tingling, muscle spasms, and weakness. 

Treatments for Degenerative Disc Disease :

For most people, degenerative disc disease can be successfully treated with non-surgical treatments like physical therapy and exercise. Surgery is only considered when if patients have not achieved relief over six months of conservative care surgery is preferred.

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Saturday, 28 April 2012

Lumbar Spine Arthritis or Spondylosis

     The most common type of arthritis to occur in the spine is osteoarthritis. Another name of Osteoarthritis is degenerative joint disease. Osteoarthritis of the spine is a breakdown of cartilage in the area of the neck and lower back. The wear and tear of osteoarthritis cause pressure on the nerves extending from the spinal column. This induces weakness and pain in the arms or legs. Osteoarthritis may also cause bone spurs to form in the spinal area. Osteoarthritis of the spine is sometimes called spinal spondylosis if the damage affects the facet joint and the discs in the spine.

     The following problems may lead to spine arthritis,
         Joint injury or trauma 
         Cartilage defect  
Arthritis spine symptoms

cause stiffness or pain in the neck or back pain
cause weakness or numbness in the legs or arms
spinal stenosis
A crunching feeling or sound of bone rubbing on bone
Spinal deformity

Arthritis of the spine treatment    

Treatment of spine arthritis depends on the symptoms. Some of the treatments for arthritis of spine include:
Physical Therapy
Weight Loss
Anti-Inflammatory Medications
Ice & Heat Applications
Chiropractic Treatment
Alternative treatments include acupuncture, massage, magnet therapy, natural remedies, and others.
Epidural Injections
Spinal Fusion Surgery


Sunday, 25 March 2012

Brain Abscess a Deadly Infection

Brain Abscess is also known as a Cerebral Abscess and caused by collection of infected materials  originated from local or remote infection sources.Cerebrum is most commonly affected by brain abscess.An abscess may also occur in the cerebellum or brain stem. Empyema is another condition, an accumulation of pus around the brain.some times it lead to Blood clots in Brain.It occurs when bacteria or fungi enter the brain tissue,the pus contains immune cells, dead microbes, cellular debris, and tissue fluid.Brain abscess leads to swelling of brain and brain inflammation.The pus is made up of dead and live microorganisms, and destroyed tissue from white blood cells carried to the area to fight the infection. Intraventricular rupture of brain abscesses (IVRBA) remains a catastrophic and fatal complication of bacterial brain abscess.

Causes of a Brain Abscess

  1. Brain abscesses are generally caused by bacteria entering the cranial cavity.
  2. Local sources may include ear infections, a dental abscess, infection of the paranasal sinuses, or epidural abscess
  3. Remote sources may include infections in the lung, heart or kidney.
  4. Brain abscess may also be the result of a head trauma.
  5. children cerebral abscesses are usually linked to congenital heart disease.
  6. Deadly brain abscesses due to infection caused from tongue piercings have occurred.
  7. Many brain abscesses are polymicrobical
Symptoms of a Brain Abscess
  1. Fever
  2. Headache
  3. vomiting
  4. inability to think quickly
  5. stupor
  6. Body weakness
  7. Fits (seizures)
  8. abnormal sensations
  9. Decreased speech
  10. Loss of muscle function
  11. Vision changes


To diagnose a brain abscess following diagnostic tests will be conducted,
  1.  computed tomography (CT)
  2.  Blood cultures
  3.  Chest x-ray
  4.  Complete blood count (CBC)
  5.  Head CT scan
  6.  Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  7.  Testing the presence of antibodies
  1. Treating the infection with antibiotics
  2. Removing the abscess
  3. Neurosurgeon can remove a piece of the brain abscess with a fine needle.

You can reduce the risk of developing a brain abscess by treating any disorders that can cause them. Have a follow-up examination after infections are treated. Some people, including those with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or urological procedures to help reduce the risk.


without treatment a Brain Abscess is nearly always fatal.

Consult a Doctor

Centre for Brain & Spine Care